Governing Council

The Governing Council of Africa Legal Aid (AFLA) is the face of courage and devotion to human rights protection. Each one of the members of the GC is a human rights luminary. AFLA’s impressive accomplishments have been guided by this illustrous body. It has given AFLA intellectual direction and international visibility.



Prof Gutto is Professor Emeritus of African Renaissance Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA). He is also Professor Extraordinaire at the Faculty of Humanities, Tshwane University of Technology since 2008 and Non-Executive Chairperson at Maluleke Seriti Makume Matlala (Attorneys) Inc since 2007. He is a member of UNISA Senate, Senate Executive Committee, and deputy chair of Senate Publications Committee; Academic planner and coordinator of the Government of South Africa-UNISA-Government of Southern Sudan human capacity and institutions’ building project (2004-2011).

More About Prof Gutto

Prof Gutto obtained an LL.B. (Hons) from the University of Nairobi in 1975, a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy from Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, U.S.A in 1978, a post-graduate Diploma in International and Comparative Law of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France (1978). He was a Senior Teaching and Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology of Law, Lund University from 1989 to March 1994; meanwhile he completed a doctorate in sociology of human rights law in 1993.

In 1982, during the Kenyan Government’s crackdown on critical academics, was forced into exile and lived in Graz, Austria and London, the U.K. He was a Lecturer and Research Fellow, Faculty of Law and the Institute of Development Studies, University of Nairobi, Lecturer at the Law Faculty, University of Zimbabwe, and founding editor of the Zimbabwe Law Review. Declared a persona non grata for unspecified “national security” grounds in 1988. Granted Convention refugee status in Sweden in 1989.

Prof Gutto was an Associate Professor, Law Faculty and the Centre for Applied Legal Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand from April 1994; Deputy Director (1995-1998) and Acting Director (2000-2001). He headed the Land Rights Research Programme and lectured in Public International Law, Human Rights, Property Law and Land Reform, Constitutional Law and Jurisprudence. Supervised masters and doctoral students. Was Co-Chairperson of Wits University Transformation/Institutional Forum 1996-2000.


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Dr Edward Kwakwa is Assistant Director General at the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) in Geneva, where he has held the position of Senior Director at the Department of Traditional Knowledge and Legal Counsel. Kwakwa holds an LL.B degree from the University of Ghana, an LL.M. from Queen’s University in Canada, and an LL.M. and a J.S.D. from Yale University in the U.S.A.

Before joining WIPO, Dr Kwakwa practised corporate and international trade law and investment with the law firm of O’Melveny and Myers in Washington, D.C., worked as International Legal Adviser at the Commission on Global Governance in Geneva, as Senior Legal Adviser at the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and as Legal Affairs Officer at the World Trade Organisation.


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Mirjam Blaak is Uganda’s Ambassador to the Benelux and the European Union. She holds an LL.M. in Dutch law with a specialisation in international law from Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She is certified as Professional Legal Mediator and Justice Rapid Response expert.

Highlights of Blaak’s accomplishments include working as a member of a team of experts revising the Model Law for implementing legislation of the ICC Statute, initiating and organising the first ICC Review Conference in Kampala, Uganda, acting as facilitator for the Hague Working Group on geographical representation and gender balance in the recruitment of the ICC staff, and serving as the Executive Director of the Executive Board of the Common Fund for Commodities, representing six countries in East and Southern Africa.

Prior to her current position, Blaak worked as financial advisor to Drillcon, a Danish company based in Kampala, as the Executive Director of Schnyder International and Schnyder Company, a legal, marketing, and management consultancy firm operating in East Africa, as Country Representative for the Netherlands Management Cooperation Programme (PUM) in Uganda, and as Legal/Associate Protection Officer with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees in Nairobi, Kenya.



Bahame Tom Nyanduga was the Chairperson of the Tanzania Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance from 2015-2017. He is a legal practitioner. Mr Nyanduga worked for the Tanzanian Government in the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs between 1978-1994 and then joined legal practice in 1995. In 2000 he served as President of the Law Society of Tanzania.  From 2004-2006 he was President of the East African Law Society. Mr Nyanduga served as a member of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, in Banjul, the Gambia, from 2003 to 2009. He is currently serving as the United Nations Independent Expert on the situation of Human Rights in Somalia, having been appointed by the Human Rights Council, Geneva, Switzerland, in June 2014.

Mr Nyanduga has litigated at the national, regional and international tribunals, including the East African Court of Justice, the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. As well, he’s been a member of an arbitral tribunal of the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris.

He graduated from the University of Dar es salaam in 1977; holds a Post Graduate Diploma in International Law from the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, 1981; an LL.M. from the London School of Economics, 1987; and attended The Hague Academy of International law, 1993.


Moray Hathorn is a Consultant and Partner Emeritus, Pro Bono Unit, Webber Wentzel. He is an expert in dealing with civil and socio-economic rights issues. He has extensive experience in land reform practice, the law relating to traditional authorities, the right to housing and gender equality and assisting non-profit organisations.

Hathorn’s expertise extends to administrative and constitutional law. He has been involved in litigation in the Magistrate’s Courts, the Labour Court and Land Claims Court, the High Court and Constitutional Court and in negotiations with government at the municipal, provincial and central level, as well as at ministerial level. In matters of international criminal justice, he has been involved in the Al-Bashir appeal case in South Africa. He has also participated in the formulation and drafting of aspects of the new land reform legislation.

He spent 15 years working at the Legal Resource Centre dealing with various matters related to human rights and land reform. Hathorn is a notary public and conveyancer. He was also director of the Rural Housing Loan Fund from May 1998 to 2012 (a not-for-profit company, incorporated for the purpose of provision of wholesale finance to lenders for low-income rural housing). He is a director of the Treatment Action Campaign and a council member of Sedibeng College.

Hathorn has a BA and LLB degrees from the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has various academic publications and was a founding member of, the first public interest law clearing housing established in South Africa.

EVELYN AMA ANKUMAH (GHANA) – Executive Director

An internationally recognised human rights and international criminal justice lawyer, with practical and academic legal experience in Africa, Europe, and North America. Ankumah has distinguished herself by pioneering initiatives in human rights and international criminal justice. She is an expert on the Rome Statute System, and the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court (ICC). She is renowned for her work in empowering victims, particularly female victims of violent crimes including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

Ankumah is the Founder and Executive Director of Africa Legal Aid (AFLA), an influential Pan-African and international organisation acclaimed for having spearheaded the contribution of African perspectives in international criminal law. She is credited for having developed AFLA into a leading voice in international justice. In 2014, Ankumah was selected by the U.K. based Power List Magazine as one of 25 Africans who have most significantly contributed to improving the African continent.

She is the Editor of AFLA’s publications: four books, 44 journals, and more than 75 e-reporters on human rights and international criminal justice. She authored the first monograph on the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Originally published in English, by Martinus Nijhoff Publishers in 1996, the book was later published in French and Arabic. Ankumah is one of the most frequently quoted authors on the African human rights system.

ICC Victims’ and Defence lawyers have credited Ankumah for having provided a voice, and platform for victims and defence counsels, notably, at the 13th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the ICC (ASP). This was the driving force behind the creation of the International Criminal Court Bar Association (ICCBA) in 2016, and its institutional recognition by the ASP.

More About Evelyn A. Ankumah


– William Mitchell College of Law, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA — Juris Doctor (JD) 1988. Was admitted to the bar of the state and federal courts of Minnesota.

– The International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France — Diploma for Human Rights Lecturers,1990.

– Faculty of Law, Department of International and European Law, University of Limburg, (now Maastricht University) The Netherlands Visiting Research Scholar and Lecturer in Human Rights and International Law, 1990-1991, 1993-1995

– African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Banjul, The Gambia – During the formative years of the Commission, and as part of her research on the African human rights system at Maastricht University, she volunteered her services prior to each session and during the sessions of the Commission, to preliminarily assess complaints submitted by NGOs and individuals to the Commission, drawing on the jurisprudence of the Inter-American and European human rights systems. She assisted the Commission in drafting Resolutions, Session Reports and communiqués. 1992-1995.

– Leiden Law School & The Permanent Court of Arbitration International Arbitration Training Certificate, 2017

– Ramsey County District Court, St. Paul, Minnesota, Law Clerk, 1987-1989

– St. Thomas College, Venlo, The Netherlands, Cultural Exchange Student, 1981-1982


  • The International Criminal Court and Africa: One Decade On (Ed. 2016, Intersentia).
  • African Perspectives on International Criminal Justice (co-editor 2005, Africa Legal Aid).
  • Litigating Economic and Social Rights in Africa (Ed. 2004, Africa Legal Aid).
  • The Legal Profession and the Protection of Human Rights in Africa (co-ed.1999, Africa Legal Aid).
  • The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Practice and Procedures (1996, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).


–  Initiator: Programme on a Victim Centred Approach to Accountability for Crimes Against Humanity and Gender and Sexual-Based Violence in Gambia; Mali and Southern Africa.

– Initiator: Training on Gender-Sensitive Adjudication for ICC Judges and Judges of Other International Courts and Tribunals

– Oversees the critical legal assessment and review of ICC judgements and judgements of other international courts and tribunals for AFLA publications.

– Editor of AFLA Publications on human rights and international criminal justice: Four books, 44 journals, and 75 e-reporters.

– Regularly shares expertise with the Assembly of States Parties to the ICC and The Hague Working Group.

– Carries forward AFLA’s year-round activities in Africa to the yearly meetings of the Assembly of States Parties to the International Criminal Court, thereby incorporating African perspectives in international criminal justice.

– Engagement in Civil Law and Common Law Countries on Rights and Accountability:

o    Supervises and coordinates rights and accountability programmes in fragile and post-conflict countries in Africa.

o    Supervises and coordinates capacity building trainings on rights and accountability for judges of African national courts, hybrid courts, and international tribunals.

o    Supervises and coordinates capacity building trainings for legal practitioners, civil societies, and marginalized groups including women, the youth and victims of atrocity crimes.

o    Convened consultations with justice actors from 23 African countries on emerging trends on complementarity, 2018.

o    Supervised and coordinated a baseline study on emerging trends on complementarity in Africa 2017-2018.

o    Supported and gave visibility at pan-African and international fora to the victim-centred approach to justice delivered to Hissene Habré, former President of Chad 2016-2017.

Engagement with Asian Stakeholders

o    Requested by governments of Japan and the Netherlands to share lessons on universalizing the Rome Statute in Africa with stakeholders from Asia, October 2018.

o    Supervised and coordinated a baseline study on emerging trends on complementarity in Asia, 2018-2019.

Counseled the European Parliament on EU Support for the ICC from an African Perspective, upon request of the EU Parliament, 2011.

– Initiated a Project on African Perspectives on Human Rights and Business, 2011.

– Initiated a Gender Justice Campaign on New Forms of Violence against Women, 2009.

– Contributed African perspectives in Experts’ Meetings of the Crimes against Humanity Initiative of the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute. The Initiative has since published a Proposed Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Humanity.2009-2010.

Initiator of the Cairo-Arusha Principles on Universal Jurisdiction in Respect of Gross Human Rights Offences: An African Perspective, adopted in 2002.

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

o    Submitted Complaints of Gross Human Rights Violations to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Conceived and convened more than 40 experts’ meetings, capacity building trainings, seminars, and symposia for legal experts, the judiciary, legal fraternities, NGOs, diplomatic spheres, and victims of gross human rights violations including:

o    Gender-Sensitive Judicial Mentorship for International Court Judges, Webinar Consultations, from 2020.

o    Justice for Victims of Rights Violations and Sexual Violence in The Gambia, ASP Side Event, The Hague, 2019.

o    Lessons from the Gbagbo and Blé Goudé Case and ICC Review (in cooperation with the Institute for Security Studies), The Hague, 2019.

o    Commemorating the 20th Anniversary of the Rome Statute System, ASP Side Event, The Hague 2018.

o    Complementarity in Action: Bringing Yahya Jammeh to Justice, ASP Side Event, The Hague 2018.

o    Consultations with Stakeholders from Central and Eastern Africa, on Emerging Trends on Complementarity, Kampala, 2018.

o    Consultations with Stakeholders from West Africa on Emerging Trends on Complementarity (in cooperation with the Attorney General’s Chambers and the Ministry of Justice of the Gambia), Banjul,  2018.

o    Victims of Hissene Habré: The Struggle for Reparations Continues (co-convened with Chadian Association of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, and Redress), ASP Side Event, New York, 2017.

o    Carrying Forward the Legacy of the Extraordinary African Chambers in the Habré Trial (in cooperation with the African Union Commission), Side Event at the 29th African Union Summit, Addis Ababa, 2017.

o    ICC Withdrawals: Is Africa Running Away from Justice? (in cooperation with the Southern African Litigation Centre), ASP Side Event, The Hague, 2016.

o    Carrying Forward the Innovations of the Extraordinary African Chambers for the Prosecution of Habré (in cooperation with The Hague Institute for Global Justice), ASP Side Event, The Hague, 2016.

o    Complementarity, the Habré Trial and the Evolution of Universal Jurisdiction (in cooperation with the Baltasar Garzon International Foundation and the Kenya Human Rights Commission), Dakar, 2016.

o    Engaging the Youth in International Criminal Justice (in cooperation with the Division of Internationalisation of the University of Johannesburg), Johannesburg, 2016.

o    Complementarity: Beyond ICC (in cooperation with the Southern African Litigation Centre), ASP Side Event, The Hague, 2015.

o    Universalizing the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Johannesburg, 2015.

o    Africa and the International Criminal Court: Lessons Learned, Synergies Ahead, Johannesburg, 2014.

o    Cooperation, Defence Perspectives, and Clarifying the Immunity Debate, ASP Side Event, New York, 2014.

o    Africa and the ICC: One Decade On, Arusha, 2013.

o    Africa and the ICC: A Stakeholder’s Meeting on Unsettling and Emerging Issues, The Hague, 2013.

o    Africa and the International Criminal Court: Engaging Francophone and North African Countries (in cooperation with the Arab Institute of Human Rights and Avocats sans Frontières Suisse), Tunis, 2013.

o    Taking the Higher Ground in the Debate on the ICC and Africa, ASP Side Event, The Hague, 2013.

o    African Perspectives on Human Rights and Business (in cooperation with Webber Wentzel Law Firm and the Commonwealth Secretariat), Johannesburg, 2012.

o    The Charles Taylor Verdict and Sentence: an Informal Appraisal, The Hague, 2012.

o    The ICC in a Politically Divided World (in cooperation with the Commonwealth Secretariat and the International Legal Assistance Consortium), Gaborone, 2011.

o    Human Rights are Good for Business (in cooperation with the Centre for African Renaissance Studies of the University of South Africa), Pretoria, 2011.

o     ICC Complementarity Workshop in Kenya, Nairobi, 2010.

o    Africa and the First ICC Review Conference, Kampala, 2010.

o    The Al Bashir Arrest Warrant: The World vs. Africa or the African Union vs. the People of Africa, The Hague, 2010.

o    Commemorating International Women’s Day: the Ghana Domestic Violence Act, Accra, 2010.

o    Breaking the Silence: Commemorating International Day on the Elimination of Violence against Women, The Hague, 2009.

o    A Holistic Approach to Gender-Based Violence (in cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), Dakar, 2009.

o    Gender Justice and the Legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (in cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice), The Hague, 2008.

o    The Interface between Peace and International Criminal Justice in Africa (in cooperation with the International Criminal Court), Accra, 2007.

o    Round Table Conference at the International Criminal Court (in cooperation with the International Criminal Court), The Hague, 2007.

o    Introducing the New African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Attorney-General’s Department, Ghana), Accra, 2006.

o    Introducing the International Criminal Court, Accra, 2003.

o    Experts Meeting 2: African Perspectives on Universal Jurisdiction for Crimes against Humanity, Arusha, 2002.

o    Experts Meeting 1: African Perspectives on Universal Jurisdiction for Crimes against Humanity, Cairo, 2001.

o    Africa and Universal Jurisdiction for Crimes against Humanity, Maastricht, 2000.

Other Professional Activities:

Member, Coalition for the International Criminal Court  2003 – Present

Member, Hague Arbitration Group  2017 – Present

Board Member, European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM)  1999 – 2006

Member of the Erstwhile African Society of International and Comparative Law  1992 – 2002  


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